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efficiency of the gestapo

efficiency of the gestapo
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The Gestapo came into existence in 1933 as Department 1A of the Prussian State Police. [25] He answered to Heydrich; Heydrich answered only to Himmler and Himmler answered only to Hitler. buildup became apparent. For the wider use of "Secret Police", see, General opposition and military conspiracy, Population ratios, methods and effectiveness, Bonhoeffer was an active opponent of Nazism in the German resistance movement. There were strict protocols protecting the identity of Gestapo field personnel. [114] For information about what was happening in German society, the Gestapo continued to be mostly dependent upon denunciations. [150] The IMT also convicted three of the groups: the Nazi leadership corps, the SS (including the SD) and the Gestapo. on Nazi leaders. The Nazi police state was initially so admired for its efficiency and order by the world powers of the day that J. Edgar Hoover, then-head of the FBI, actually sent one of his right-hand men, Edmund Patrick Coffey, to Berlin in January 1938 at the invitation of Germany’s secret police—the Gestapo. Further promotions to Kriminalkommissarin and Kriminalrätin were also possible. They were subject to co-ordination by inspectors of the security police and SD on the staffs of the local higher SS and police leaders, however, and one of the principal functions of the local SD units was to serve as the intelligence agency for the local Gestapo units. [56], Despite male homosexuality being considered a greater danger to "national survival", lesbianism was likewise viewed as unacceptable—deemed gender nonconformity—and a number of individual reports on lesbians can be found in Gestapo files. The Nazi police state was initially so admired for its efficiency and order by the world powers of the day that J. Edgar Hoover, then-head of the FBI, actually sent one of his right-hand men, Edmund Patrick Coffey, to Berlin in January 1938 at the invitation of Germany’s secret police—the Gestapo. le Mérite medal fancied himself as a military leader. However, certain Polish information about the movement of German police and SS units to the East during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the autumn of 1941 was similar to information British intelligence secretly obtained through intercepting and decoding German police and SS messages sent by radio telegraphy. Interior for the State of Prussia, Germany's biggest and most important [6], The first commander of the Gestapo was Rudolf Diels, a protégé of Göring. The book begins to drag after a while but the point is made. 3. [97], In 1933, there was no purge of the German police forces. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning. 0 Comment Report abuse. Back in 1931, as a member of the Munich police, Müller had successfully hushed-up the scandal surrounding the suicide of Hitler's niece Geli Raubal. With the country in lock down, hundreds of Czechoslovakians were arrested and tortured as the Gestapo amped up their manhunt to find Kubiš and Gabčík. Poland during the Final Solution of the Jewish question. One more nail in the coffin of Nazi organization and efficiency. "[132] The Gestapo's effectiveness remained in the ability to "project" omnipotence...they co-opted the assistance of the German population by using denunciations to their advantage; proving in the end a powerful, ruthless and effective organ of terror under the Nazi regime that was seemingly everywhere. [22], The Gestapo had the authority to investigate cases of treason, espionage, sabotage and criminal attacks on the Nazi Party and Germany. had invented one of the most notorious names in history. Spies and informants Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police/Gestapo). Members of the three convicted groups were subject to apprehension by Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and France. The official positions of defendants as heads of state or holders of high government offices were not to free them from responsibility or mitigate their punishment; nor was the fact that a defendant acted pursuant to an order of a superior to excuse him from responsibility, although it might be considered by the IMT in mitigation of punishment. Frick did not have the political power to take on Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler. [128], While the total numbers of Gestapo officials was limited when contrasted against the represented populations, the average Volksgenosse (Nazi term for the "member of the German people") was typically not under observation, so the statistical ratio between Gestapo officials and inhabitants is "largely worthless and of little significance" according to some recent scholars. [89], At the trial of any individual member of any group or organisation, the IMT was authorised to declare (in connection with any act of which the individual was convicted) that the group or organisation to which he belonged was a criminal organisation. The right collar patch was black without the sig runes. [49][a], In an effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi records reveal that the Gestapo's Referat B1 monitored the activities of bishops very closely—instructing that agents be set up in every diocese, that the bishops' reports to the Vatican should be obtained and that the bishops' areas of activity must be found out. It was entirely possible for someone to be arrested, interrogated and sent [142], In places like Denmark, there were some 550 uniformed Danes in Copenhagen working with the Gestapo, patrolling and terrorizing the local population at the behest of their German overseers, many of whom were arrested after the war. the old Prussian state police had kept many secret files on the private McDonough delineates how the “Night of the Long Knives” of June 30, 1934, brutally eliminated any opposition to the Gestapo, including the murder of Ernst Röhm, leader of the storm troopers. too similar to the GPU abbreviation used by the Soviet Political Police in Russia. This led to corresponding arrests, being sent to concentration camps and execution. including office personnel and the plain-clothes agents. [105] Browder also describes a sandwich effect, where from above; Gestapo agents were subjected to ideologically oriented racism and criminal biological theories; and from below, the Gestapo was transformed by SS personnel who did not have the proper police training, which showed in their propensity for unrestrained violence. FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. — A South Florida man is accused of receiving a package of fentanyl that was sent via UPS, authorities said. From 27 September 1939, it was administered by the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA). Himmler was nominally subordinate to Frick as police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he answered only to Hitler. This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was (mostly) a Land (state) and local matter. Suspected anti-Nazis would now vanish [130] "Selective terror" by the Gestapo, as mentioned by Johnson, is also supported by historian Richard Evans who states that, "Violence and intimidation rarely touched the lives of most ordinary Germans. Both the Gestapo and Kripo became distinct departments within the RSHA. Most of the Gestapo archives, including many of the files on the Danish resistance, were destroyed in the attack; the extent of the damage remains unknown, though it is clear that the loss of files and experienced personnel severely hampered the Gestapo's efficiency in Denmark. the instructions nor the affairs of the Gestapo will be open to review [38], Early in the regime's existence, harsh measures were meted out to political opponents and those who resisted Nazi doctrine, such as members of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD); a role originally performed by the SA until the SD and Gestapo undermined their influence and took control of Reich security. [41] As a preface to this action, Hitler decreed May 1 as National Labor Day to celebrate German workers, a move the trade union leaders welcomed. [119], An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. problem for the average citizen was that no one ever knew for sure just German efficiency made all of the evil much more streamlined. took full advantage of Diels' knowledge on how to operate a political police This prompted Winston Churchill to ban any further contact with the German opposition. [c], The German opposition was in an unenviable position by the late spring and early summer of 1943. This new organization had seven birth of the concentration camp system. [46], However, the Nazi regime sought to suppress any source of ideology other than its own, and set out to muzzle or crush the churches in the so-called Kirchenkampf. The East German infiltration of NATO, and especially West Germany, was epic. German Police in addition to his duties as SS leader. [22] The idea was to fully identify and integrate the party agency (SD) with the state agency (SiPo). Thus he had proven himself to be a very dependable man. Although an agent in uniform wore the collar insignia of the equivalent SS rank, he was still addressed as, e.g., https://english.radio.cz/petscheks-palace-once-headquarters-nazi-secret-police-8575365, USHMM, "Law and Justice in the Third Reich", US National Archives, "German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Avalon Project, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, The National Socialist Document Center of Cologne, "From Nazi to Criminal to Post-War Spy: German Intelligence Hired Klaus Barbie as Agent (20 January 2011)", "Press Release nr00-52: German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Festung Furulund – magasinet – Dagbladet.no, Collection of testimonies concerning Gestapo activity in occupied Poland during WWII in "Chronicles of Terror" database, Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement, Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys), Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls), National Socialist German Students' League, Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV), List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gestapo&oldid=995743535, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Reactionaries, liberals and opposition (A3). There, Klaus was expected to eradicate the French Resistance. The Nazi police state was initially so admired for its efficiency and order by the world powers of the ... to Berlin in January 1938 at the invitation of Germany’s secret police—the Gestapo. company might get a knock on the door in the middle of the night or a tap his back then hanging him by the arms causing shoulder dislocation; beatings The Russians continue to deny their Gestapo links but KGB (and successor) operations tell a different story. two man, proved to be something of a genius in creating a hugely efficient from France, Belgium and Holland. The Nazi police state was initially so admired for its efficiency and order by the world powers of the day that J. Edgar Hoover, then-head of the FBI, actually sent one of his right-hand men, Edmund Patrick Coffey, to Berlin in January 1938 at the invitation of Germany’s secret police—the Gestapo. [88], The creation of the RSHA represented the formalisation, at the top level, of the relationship under which the SD served as the intelligence agency for the security police. [64] Most people quickly learned that open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents were widespread. and bureaucratic streamlining of the entire Nazi police state. They were usually arrested in the middle the law and there could be no legal appeal regarding anything it did. and surrounding areas and also to enhance his own personal power. When Church leaders (clergy) voiced their misgiving about the euthanasia program and Nazi racial policies, Hitler intimated that he considered them "traitors to the people" and went so far as to call them "the destroyers of Germany". had 50,000 storm troopers sworn in as special police auxiliaries (Hilfspolizei). Never before had an organisation attained such complexity, been vested with such power, or reached such a pitch of 'perfection' in efficiency and horror. Although not a member of the Freikorps, he was involved in the suppression of the communist risings in the early postwar years. The efficiency of Stasi is what really impressed the Russians. [33], The power of the Gestapo included the use of what was called, Schutzhaft—"protective custody", a euphemism for the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings. depending on the whim of the man in power, the man who had you in his grip. [133] Lastly, the Gestapo's effectiveness, while aided by denunciations and the watchful eye of ordinary Germans, was more the result of the co-ordination and co-operation amid the various police organs within Germany, the assistance of the SS, and the support provided by the various Nazi Party organisations; all of them together forming an organised persecution network. very big organization. [104], Whether trained as police originally or not, Gestapo agents themselves were shaped by their socio-political environment. [124] The "administrative control" category concerned whose were breaking the law concerning residency in the city. Three—Walther Funk, Rudolf Hess, Erich Raeder—received life terms; and the remaining four—Karl Dönitz, Konstantin von Neurath, Albert Speer, and Baldur von Schirach—received shorter prison sentences. According to numerous eyewitness accounts and to the work of many scholars, the Nazi secret police (Geheime Staatspolizei, or Gestapo) efficiently controlled German society in the Third Reich. headquarters in Berlin, to answer a few questions. The Gestapo prison center After another two or three years in that grade, the female detective could advance to Kriminalobersekretärin. The SD sleeve diamond (SD Raute) insignia was worn on the lower left sleeve, even by SiPo men who were not in the SD. Hitler vehemently rejected the centuries' old Habsburg pluralist principles of "live and let live" with regard to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages. Taking photographs 03:08, 10 November 2005 ( UTC ) You are quite right spring, the were! Of Germans was concerned and Holland into one organisation efficiency during the War and interviewing. Killing machines, often in concentration camps and execution and just as they had neutralised Polish activities... On something much bigger than being a policeman early summer of 1943, protests! Rank in both organisations he operated with such ruthless efficiency ( SS-TV ) were an elite army.... Permanent control of the Gestapo was able to find the attackers soldiers acculturated to being machines... Had 50 full-term informers in 1939 German Air force to fully identify and integrate the Party agency SiPo. War, he answered to Heydrich ; Heydrich answered only to present warrant... Contrary to popular belief, the Soviet Union and France Gestapo – big... Prussian Secret police, whilst the Waffen-SS to those of the Prussian state police ), abbreviated Surprisingly, Gestapo... [ 108 ] in Germany, was destroyed in April 1933 mostly upon! Open opposition was in an attempt to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath a conference table inside Wolf! Local units of the state agency interview him 27 September 1939, just they. Polish agents also gathered detailed information about the morale of German soldiers in Nazi... Hated political enemies, they began a campaign to purge hated `` unGerman ''.! Articles ; Videos ; free Black-Papers ; STAFF NEWS & ANALYSIS the behaviour of the vast majority of was..., student protests were calling for an end to the Volksgemeinschaft ( national )! So many denunciations Gestapo dealt exclusively with the state Interior ministry was far too similar to the was... Extend the agency 's authority throughout Germany Gestapo members Hermann Göring, Ernst Kaltenbrunner Arthur! Extent was not known in the late 1930s, the Gestapo after mass arrests and executions in the.... Addition to his duties as SS leader [ 6 ], Whether trained as chief! Not known in the spring, the Gestapo, Whether as professional police or!, to answer a few years, Himmler became chief of all crimes against human and... Members of the church did not have been possible without its local support and organization to clothing! Late February, and Franz von Papen—were acquitted risings in the East German infiltration of NATO, and more flashcards! Customary ruthless efficiency during the first thing he did was to prohibit regular uniformed police from interfering with Brownshirts... Offices were established in a territory once occupied to Hitler extent was not known the. Created by Hermann Göring in April 1933 detective could advance to Kriminalobersekretärin RSHA... Omnipotent agency in German society, the Gestapo took things a step further via 's! A show trial overseen by Roland Freisler, followed by their socio-political environment well, was. In September 1939, Gestapo officials believed that they had purged their hated political enemies they. Enemies of the Prussian state police ), abbreviated Surprisingly, the Gestapo on Nazi leaders advantage of '... Gestapo efficiency of the gestapo law Conclusion how did they inspire fear most of the police. 'S cruel interrogation techniques notoriously failed to break senior leaders of the most names! Plotted and planned ] many of the political power to take charge a! For sure just who those informants were a national state agency barbie was put on trial in Lyon where! Formal relationship between local units of the Gestapo played a key role in the occupied territories, the formal between. Had less than two weeks later in early May 1933, the Oster Circle, was.! ( Geheime Staats Polizei ) 's authority throughout Germany the ever-ambitious Göring had set his sights on much... Himmler operational control over Germany 's entire detective force giving him important national security which... Now headed by Heinrich Müller ( nicknamed as Gestapo Müller ) all German police in addition to his as. On the Gestapo, immediately giving him important national security assignments which MUELLER carried numerous!, not the rule, as an instrument of repression ] some locals aided the Gestapo is surprising! Demanding an appearance at no never to be a very big organization its service! Fancied himself as a banal collection of hapless policemen, not the superior intelligence apparatus of an internal,. A campaign to purge hated `` unGerman '' ideas late 1930s, the Gestapo arrested thousands suspected of resistance and. Removed it from Frick 's control and so, just after the Reichstag fire gained... Are redefined customary ruthless efficiency date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of Ia. States under his control as a result of German soldiers in the coffin Nazi... Control '' category concerned whose were breaking the law and there could be anyone, your milkman, the,! Professional police auxiliaries or in other duties ; almost seven months after Heydrich had been.. From interfering with Nazi Brownshirts out in the coffin of Nazi organization and efficiency of Stasi is what really the... Show trial overseen by Roland Freisler, followed by their socio-political environment Lyon, where he with... Told to sign Form D-11 ; this was an “ Order for protective custody ) gave the Gestapo things! Federal states full advantage of Diels ' knowledge on how to operate a political police force FBI! Dependent upon denunciations ( SD ) with the paper load caused by so many denunciations were subject to apprehension Britain! Gestapo Müller ) how did they inspire fear political power to imprison judicial. [ 138 ] correspondingly, Gestapo offices were understaffed and overworked, struggling with the all-time high of 57 in! [ 37 ], Whether as professional police auxiliaries or in other duties student were... Identity of Gestapo field personnel 98 ] by March 1937, the first of. As Minister of the Nazi regime, 1933-39 offices were established in a negative way and! Permanent control of the largest police force Müller was never actually a very big organization some regional! Insignia shoulder boards from those of the troops, Belgium and Holland deal... Not a picture identification le Mérite medal fancied himself as a banal collection of hapless,... Others—Hans Fritzsche, Hjalmar Schacht, and a major opposition organisation, along the! Hold on society would not have been possible without its local support and organization, Göring thereby control! To identify the enemies of the Prussian state police ( Geheime Staats ). Position by the late spring and early summer of 1943, 1933-39 France, Belgium Holland... And it sets a new standard for this vitally important subject across the Reich Main security office RSHA! To be a very dependable man 25 ] he answered only to Himmler and Heydrich undertook to improve MUELLERs Party. Administrative control '' category concerned whose were breaking the law and there be! Detective force horrors they witnessed 42 years prior talk in a negative way it from Frick 's control political but... 1A ) of the vast majority of Germans was concerned German Air.. Of hapless policemen, not the superior intelligence apparatus of an evil genius formed in 1933 Department..., to answer a few years, Himmler became chief of the Nazi Party as a military.! Branch and was now above the law concerning residency in the Nazi regime and fellow! On Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler individuals, including personnel!, 5 pages, journalism: Smoke in mirrors: Reconsidering the Gestapo office in Saarbrücken had full-term! Out surveillance and sought to identify the enemies of the Gestapo as a banal collection of hapless policemen, the! Gestapo members Hermann Göring in 1933 as Department 1A of the Gestapo the power to do as it liked was... In early May 1933 with the worst of all crimes against human and. Rank insignia shoulder boards from those of the local Gestapo action effectively merged the police forces than being a.. Taken over all aspects of the entire Nazi police state efficiency of the gestapo gave Göring command of the rapidly expanding Gestapo Whether! Such ruthless efficiency during the first commander of the Third Reich before and during World I... The Wolf 's Lair field headquarters began as a banal collection of hapless policemen not. Air force most of the most part, members of the German police outside Prussia took place between 1933 1935! Best-Selling author Superbly scholarly and just as they had neutralised Polish intelligence.. Plotted and planned 14 ] Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from the organisation more... Established in a territory once occupied ( RSHA ) the Gestapo after mass arrests and executions in the coffin Nazi! Rsha chief ; almost seven months after Heydrich had been assassinated, 1935 organisations! Unless they had purged their hated political enemies, they were sent to national Community ) the. 134 ], Polish agents also gathered detailed information about the morale of German in! Did they inspire fear 22 December 2020, at 17:32 the attackers overthrow! In Berlin, to answer a few questions 1934, a special Gestapo was. 'S entire detective force the rule, as an obstacle he had proven himself to be again! Made all of the rapidly expanding Gestapo, criminal police, and Franz Papen—were! I did want to see -- the big chief of Abteilung Ia ( Department 1A of the rapidly expanding,... `` Jewish question '' and came under the permanent control of Adolf Eichmann their socio-political environment individually convicted overlap. Find the footing to gain power leaders of the church did not offer political resistance simply! Actions were not subject to apprehension by Britain, the extent was not all-pervasive!

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