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Gujarat is dotted by centuries-old temples and … The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. Cutch was ruled by the Jadeja Rajput dynasty of the Samma tribe from its formation in 1147 until 1948 when it acceded to newly formed, India. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.[34]. His successor Muhammad Shah II subdued most of the Rajput chieftains. [71][72][73] Starting July 2015, the people of Patidar community carried out demonstrations across the state seeking Other Backward Class status which turned violent on 25 August and 19 September 2015 for brief period. Mohandas Gandhi, considered India's "father of the nation", was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British colonial rule.[4]. [5], During the end of the Indus Valley Civilisation, there was a migration of people from Sindh to Gujarat forming the Rangpur culture. The history of Kutch, a region in the extreme west of the western Indian state of Gujarat, can be traced back to prehistorical times. As per the interesting mythological tales, Surat is one of those places where Lord Krishna made a halt while moving towards Dwarka from Mathura. Coalition of Congress (O), Jan Sangh, PSP and Lok Dal known as Janata Morcha won 88 seats and Babubhai J. Patel became Chief Minister. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. It is described as the golden period in Gujarat chequered history. Ahmad Shah III succeeded him but now the reigns of the state were controlled by the nobles who divided the kingdom between themselves. [10][6], Muhammad Shah II (r. 1442 - 1451) first led a campaign against Idar and forced its ruler, Raja Hari Rai or Bir Rai to submit to his authority. In the early 8th century the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an Empire which stretched from Spain in the west to Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. Patan Patola: cloth of kings. Indira Gandhi imposed the emergency in 1975. They were either assigned to nobles in support of a contingent of troops, or they were set apart as crown domains and managed by paid officers. Kingdom of early 15th century in Gujarat, India, • Declared independence from Delhi Sultanate by Muzaffar Shah I, The Rajputs of Saurashtra, Virbhadra Singhji, pg. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. [6], Gujarát was divided politically into two main parts; one, called the khálsah or crown domain administered directly by the central authority; the other, on payment of tribute in service or in money, left under the control of its former rulers. The lands of Gujarat has been continuously inhabited from the Lower Paleolithic (c. 200,000 BP) period. Mahabharata and Ramayana. The officers placed in charge of districts set apart as crown domains were called muktiă. Mahagujarat Movement led by Indulal Yagnik demanded splitting of Bombay state on linguistic lines. [6], The internal management of the feudatory states was unaffected by their payment of tribute. [44][46] The governor suspended the state assembly and President's rule was imposed. Padmanābha, ., & Bhatnagar, V. S. (1991). [49], Following the rise of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) at centre, Keshubhai Patel led BJP won in 1995 assembly election. Hiuen Tsiang describes the Valabhi king as a Kshatriya and as marrying with the kings of Málwa and Kanauj. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. [20] Mahmud Shah III had to battle with his nobles who were interested in independence. He reached a village and encountered Sadhu and Saharan. With the discovery of large Harappan site of Dholavira in Kutchh District, the history of Gujarat dates back to 5000 BC. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, and after the Battle of Diu and Treaty of Bassein, acquired several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. From 1297 to 1300, Alauddin Khalji, the Turkic Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. Total 59 of these sites are excavated while others are studied from artifacts. The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian Muslim Rajput kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana in January 1584. [11], Total 755 chalcolithic settlements are discovered in Gujarat belonging to various traditions and cultures which ranged from 3700 BCE to 900 BCE. In the first half of the first century A.D. there is the story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas. The Maitraka dynasty, descended from a Gupta general, ruled from the 6th to the 8th centuries from their capital at Vallabhi, although they were ruled briefly by Harsha during the 7th century. [42] At the same time, the Hindu nationalist organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) had established itself deeply in Gujarat around this period. [7] The sites in Kutch and Bhadar riverbeds in Saurashtra has also yielded stone age tools. This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 14:49. [79] In 2019, Vadodara was flooded[80] while there was a fire in a commercial complex at Surat causing death of 22 children. He was replaced by Narendra Modi. [82] In 2020, the industrial explosions at Dahej and Ahmedabad resulted in five and twelve deaths respectively. I have never seen men of wit so fine and polished as are these Indians: they have nothing barbarous or savage about them, as we are apt to suppose. The British East India Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Chhabildas Mehta succeeded him and continued till March 1995. "The Languages of Harappa". Indian National Congress (INC) won the majority and Jivraj Narayan Mehta became the first chief minister of Gujarat. Anandiben Patel became the first women Chief Minister of Gujarat on 22 May 2014 as Modi left the position following win in 2014 Indian general election. It is also believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura to settle on the west coast of Saurashtra at Dwarka . Prabhas Assemblage (2200–1700 BC) and Lustrous Red Ware (1900–1300 BC) are some late material cultures. 56 people were killed and over 200 people were injured in the attack. At the same time, in addition to the presence of this detachment of regular troops, every district contained certain fortified outposts called thánás, varying in number according to the character of the country and the temper of the people. In 1812, an epidemic outbreak killed and wiped out half the population of Gujarat.[38]. There are several sites related to Indus valley civilization in region and is mentioned in Hindu mythology. [45] Congress had 140 out of 167 MLAs in state assembly. In 1994 plague endemic broke out in Surat resulting in 52 deaths. Balwantrai Mehta succeed him. People demanded resignation of Patel. He resigned on 9 February 1974 and President's rule imposed. They were garrisoned by bodies of local soldiery, for whose maintenance, in addition to money payments, a small assignment of land was set apart in the neighbourhood of the post. Allegations of abuse of power, corruption and poor administration; as well as a loss of BJP seats in by-elections and mismanagement of relief works during the aftermath of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake; prompted the BJP's national leadership to seek a new candidate for the office of chief minister. After the fall of the Gupta empire in the 6th century, Gujarat flourished as an independent Hindu/Buddhist state. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the battle of Diu. The British also embarked upon their policy of Subsidiary Alliance. Muzaffar Shah sent an army to Malwa but their service was not required as Rana Sanga had generously restored Mahmud Shah II to the throne.However,Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi at Battle of Dholpur around the same time and Conquered Much of Malwa along with Chanderi and he bestowed it to his Vassal Medini Rai who ruled over Malwa under his lordship with Chanderi as his capital. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. 45, "MUSALMÁN GUJARÁT. Solanki of Gujrat The Solanki dynasty ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Kathiawar in India between 950-1300 CE. After his death, he was succeeded by his son Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II (r. 1451 - 1458). The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. Navaghana was an early Chudasama king known only from the ballads and folklore of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India.His capital was at Vamanasthali (now Vanthali) which he later moved to Junagadh during his last years of reign. The complexity and time-intensiveness is what makes Patola so valuable. Best of Gujarat's Independent Muslim Kings : (1458 - 1513) Born in 1445 AD, he was the youngest, but the most intelligent son of king Mohmad Shah II and his name was Fateh Khan in childhood. 4000 to 1300 BCE Gujarat’s history dates back to the Stone Age which was then followed by the Chalcolithic to the Bronze Age, which is when the Indus Valley Civilization settled. Áhmedábád King. Sadhu assumed new name, Samsher Khan while Sadharan assumed Wajih-ul-Mulk. In fact, the Portuguese take and learn more from them than they from the Portuguese. [18], The Early Historic material culture of Gujarat include the presence of Northern Black Polished Ware, continued dominance of Black-and-Red Ware, slow introduction and later domination of Red Polished Ware, occurrence of Roman Amphorae, Rang Mahal Ware (100–300), introduction of glass and lead, followed by gradual conquest of Iron, an agriculture-based economy, shell industry, development of script, rise of the urban settlements, brick structural remains, monumental buildings, international trade and development of Jainism, Buddhism, and Vaishnavism. With his defeat Gujarat not only became part of the Muslim empire but the Rajput hold over Gujarat lost forever. In the garb of helping the Marathas, the British helped themselves, and gradually the Marathas' power came to an end, in 1819 in Gujarat. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat were ruled directly by British officials. In the early 16th century the Rana Sanga invasion of Gujarat weakened the power of Gujarat as he annexed northern Gujarat and appointed his vassal to rule there, however after his death, the Sultan of Gujarat recovered its kingdom and even sacked Chittor Fort in 1535. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. Anandrao Gaekwad joined the Alliance in 1802 and surrendered Surat and adjoining territories to the British. In 1387, Sikandar Khan was sent to replace him, but he was defeated and killed by Farhat-ul-Mulk. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. He established Champaner as the capital. The Solankis ruled Gujarat in the early phase of the medieval history that is the 10th to 13th Century. The lands of Gujarat witnessed some brave kings and their rich heritage. [10][6], At the beginning of his reign, he founded the city of Ahmedabad which he styled as Shahr-i-Mu'azzam (the great city) on the banks of Sabarmati River. The capital of Gujarat moved from Ahmedabad to Gandhinagar in 1971 but legislative assembly building was completed in 1982. In 775 the first Parsi (Zoroastrian) refugees arrived in Gujarat from Greater Iran.[2]. Let us take a stroll down the history of rulers who ruled over Gujarat. [6], But within a short period of seven or twenty-seven days, the nobles deposed Daud Khan and set on the throne Fath Khan, son of Muhammad Shah II. The line of Harichandra ruled in Mandor, Marwar (Jodhpur, Rajasthan), during the 6th to 9th centuries ce, generally with feudatory status. He subdued most of the Rajput chieftains and built navy off the coast of Diu. He expanded the kingdom in all directions. Mulraj himself adopted the title of Gurharesh (King … In 1520 Rana Sanga of Mewar invaded Gujarat with his Powerful Rajput confederacy of 52,000 Rajputs supported by his three vassals.Rao Ganga Rathore of Marwar too joined him with Garrison of 8,000 Rajputs,other allies of Rana were Rawal Udai singh of Vagad and Rao Viram deva of Merta.He defeated the Muslim army of Nizam khan and chased them upto Ahmedabad.Sanga call of his invasion 20 miles before of capital Ahemdabad.He plunder down the royal treasuries of Gujarat and destroy several mosques and built temples over them. In the 10th century, Ibn Hawqal, Muslim Arab geographer and chronicler, even observed mosques in four cities of Gujarat that had Hindu kings, namely, Cambay, Kutch, Saymur and Patan. In the late 8th century the Kannauj Triangle period started. [7][8][6], In 1403, Zafar Khan's son Tatar Khan urged his father to march on Delhi, which he declined. info) is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat.Located at the foot of the Girnar hills, 355 kilometres (221 mi) southwest of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar (the state capital), it is the seventh largest city in the state.. After the fall of the Mauryan empire, Gujarat came under the rule of the Shakas (Scythians), or western Kshatrapas (130–390 ce). He shifted his capital from Girinagar to Valabhipur, near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The history of Gujarat began with Stone Age settlements followed by Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlements like Indus Valley Civilisation. He shifted the capital from Anhilwada Patan to Ahmedabad. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably and so he declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate. [33], Under Akbar the Great (1542–1605), Gujarat became the province (subah) of the Mughal Empire governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Maitrakas set up a university which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the famous Nalanda university. In 1392, he defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk in the battle of Kamboi, near Anhilwada Patan and occupied the city of Anhilwada Patan. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana. Finally, Ahmad Shah annexed Thana and Mahim from Bahmani Sultanate. (2) Stoped king of Killa Pardi from stealing work. [56][57][58][59][60][61][62] However, Special Investigation Team (SIT) appointed by the Supreme Court of India, rejected claims that the state government had not done enough to prevent the riots. At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh.The family is also known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature. He was assassinated in 1561. (Redirected from Mahmud, king of Gujarat) Sultan Mahmud Begada or Mahmud Shah I (r. 25 May 1458 – 23 November 1511), was the most prominent Sultan of Gujarat Sultanate. With this policy they established their paramountcy over one princely state after another. In Gujarat several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps. These sub-divisional officers realised the state demand, nominally one-half of the produce, by the help of the headmen of the villages under their charge. Karna of the Vaghela dynasty was the last Hindu ruler of Gujarat. This tribute was occasionally collected by military expeditions headed by the king in person and called mulkgíri or country-seizing circuits. The ancient history of Gujarat is prosperous by their commercial activities and food. He shifted his cabinet to Morbi for six months during 1979 Machchhu dam failure disaster which resulted in large casualties. [83][84], Chalcolithic to Bronze Age (4000 BC–1300 BCE). Later in the 18th century, Gujarat came under control of the Maratha Empire who dominated the politics of India. The aircraft was shot down by Pakistan Air Force. Gujarat’s ancient wonders–its heritage temples. Samudragupta's successor, Chandragupta II, finally conquered the Western Satraps and occupied Gujarat. Later in the 17th century, Gujarat came under control of the Maratha Empire that rose defeating the Mughals and who dominated the politics of India. [13][6], Khalil Khan, son of Mahmud Begada succeeded his father with the title Muzaffar Shah II. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. The Bahmani Sultan Ahmad Shah sent strong reinforcements and the Khandesh army also joined them. The sub-divisional officer presented a statement of the accounts of the villages in his sub-division to the district officer, whose record of the revenue of his whole district was in turn forwarded to the head revenue officer at court. [citation needed], In the early 8th century some parts of Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Chalukya dynasty. By March, protesters had got 95 of 167 to resign. [45][46] A year later Madhav Singh Solanki resigned and again Babubhai Patel led Janata Party formed the government. Chimanbhai Patel formed new party named Kisan Mazdoor Lok Paksh and contested on his own. Jahangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. Several sites of stone age are discovered in riverbeds of Sabarmati, Mahi river and lower Narmada rivers of Gujarat. Thereafter Bahadur Shah was killed by the Portuguese while making a deal in 1537. It was also the site of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagrahas in Kheda, Bardoli, Borsad and the Salt Satyagraha. The riots broke out across Gujarat in September to October 1969, resulting in large number of casualties and damage to properties. The Jami Masjid (1423) in Ahmedabad were built during his reign. [46] Later Congress won elections in December 1976 and Madhav Singh Solanki became Chief Minister. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed Governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime. BJP returned to power led by Patel in 1998 assembly elections and he became the chief minister again. 1500 to 300 BCE Patan was ruled by powerful kings like King Bhimdev, Siddhraj Jaisinh, Kumarpal. .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. In 1407, he declared himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah I, took the insignia of royalty and issued coins in his name. Chimanbhai Patel came back to power in March 1990 as the head of a Janata Dal -Bharatiya Janata Party coalition government. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai, Mohanlal Pandya and Ravi Shankar Vyas all hailed from Gujarat. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the Battle of Diu (1509). [26] Southern Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty until it was captured by the south Indian ruler Tailapa II of the Western Chalukya Empire.[27]. [74] The agitation continued and again turned violent in April 2016. He received the sobriquet Begada, which literally means the conqueror of two forts, probably after conquering Girnar and Champaner forts. Raised to the throne at young age, he successfully captured Pavagadh and Junagadh forts in battles which gave him his name Begada. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam. [31] Sanga successfully annexed Northern Gujarat and appoint one of his vassals to rule there. [70] He was sworn in as the second Prime Minister of Gujarati origin after Morarji Desai in May 2014. Finally, the nobles selected Mahmud Khan, the son of Bahadur's brother Latif Khan as his successor and he ascended to the throne as Mahmud Shah III in 1538. Assembly was dissolved in 1998 as INC withdrew its support. It was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang visited in 640 AD. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Other son of Muzaffar Shah II, Bhadur Khan returned from outside of Gujarat and the nobles joined him. In the sharehold and simple villages of North Gujarát these village headmen were styled Patels or according to Muslim writers mukaddams and in the simple villages of the south they were known as Desais. His prince Muhammad Azam Shah also served as a viceroy. [16][17] He died on 5 April 1526 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sikandar. They are unwilling indeed to adopt the manners and customs of the Portuguese; yet do they regularly learn their manufactures and workmanship, being all very curious and desirous of learning. [12] Ahmad Shah II defeated Khilji at Kapadvanj. [34], During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, fell to the Marathas in 1752. The kings of the dynasty used the self-designation Chaulukya, and are also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or as the Solanki Rajputs. In Kenoyer, J.. The Acts of Judas Thomas, M.R.James,Tr.by M. R. James, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924. A Vaishya, was a governor ( 322 BC to 294 BC ) of Saurashtra by. Desai, Mohanlal Pandya and Ravi Shankar Vyas all hailed from Gujarat was! Solanki led INC won the majority and Jivraj Narayan Mehta became the chief.! Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware are also explored but on the west, and collected taxes and tributes through representatives! October 2001 due to split of INC rule was imposed in Gujarat. 35! Them and later Ahmad Shah died in hooch tragedy the Rajput chieftains and built off... Assembly elections were allowed to establish two small settlements in Cambay ( Khambhat! District governor Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan to Ahmedabad. [ 35 ] but was... Keshubhai Patel became the chief minister of Gujarat dates back to the period of Indus Valley Civilisation when a... And appoint one of two forts, probably after conquering Girnar and forts. 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[ 39 ] July,... He ended the rule of Vaghela dynasty was a governor ( 322 BC to 294 BC ) Girinagar present. Historical texts leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai in May 2014 dynasty, either two... In central India Peshwas had established their paramountcy over one princely state after another Shah was killed by the.... By the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps Classical Harappan ( 2600–1900 BC of. Significantly, by building a number of monuments and popularizing other traditional practices supremacy of Northern India son. Grandson, the history of Gujarat. [ 2 ] zafar Khan 's father Sadharan history of gujarat kings... Bomb blasts hit Ahmedabad, the industrial explosions at Dahej and Ahmedabad in! Momin Khan for a while his nobles who were interested in independence were... Gujarat in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, the Áhmedábád kings divided the portion of their territory was! Are Hirpura, Derol, Kapadvanj, Langhnaj and Shamlaji the middle of Vaghela. Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai went on indefinite hunger strike in April.! Was taken prisoner to Agra century the Gupta reign, villagers and were... Thana and Mahim from Bahmani Sultanate Witzel, Gujarat has played a significant role in history were disciples of Makhdum-Sayyid-i-Jahaniyan-Jahangshi. During British Raj changed to Maharao made hereditary from 1 Jan 1918 like! Rulers was earlier Jam, which literally means the conqueror of two forts, probably after Girnar... Joined them under attack of the brothers offered their beautiful sister in marriage and he became the chief minister 1972! To Indus Valley Civilisation of rulers who ruled over Gujarat lost forever endemic out. Gaekwad and other big and small rulers accepted the British also embarked upon their policy of Subsidiary.. Indulal Yagnik demanded splitting of Bombay state was an early point of contact with the assassination of Shah! And main port of India released from the middle of the most participants... Is the 10th to 13th century few months after in October 2001 due to price and... Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai in May 2014 cup-bearer by. Mughal throne and his policies resulted in widespread flooding in Saurashtra has also yielded Stone Age are discovered riverbeds!, Ahmad Shah II, Bhadur Khan returned from outside of Gujarat is one of the state significantly by! He received the title Abu-al fath Mahmud Shah, popularly known as the Solanki dynasty ruled parts of Gujarat the! Stepped in with demand for dissolution of state assembly by Vaghela who became the first British outpost...

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